which is based on a liquid crystal display (LCD). LCD displays work on the principle of blocking light rather than emitting it, which enables them to consume much less power than either CRT or plasma-based displays
which is really just an LCD display technology based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) backlighting the display instead of the cold cathode fluorescent lights (CCFLs) used in standard LCD televisions. The correct name for LED TV is LED-backlight LCD television. LEDs enable more precise lighting than fluorescent lighting and lower power use. There are three types of LED
OLED TV, which exploits the properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). OLED TV is a different technology than LED TV. OLED displays don't require backlighting, which means that they use much less power than most display technologies and can be extremely thin.
In a plasma display, each pixel on the screen is illuminated by a tiny bit of plasma (which is charged gas) and the whole is encased between two thin sheets of glass. Plasma TVs are generally thought to offer a superior picture to that of LCD displays, especially for dark-room viewing, but the gap between the two is narrowing.
Rather than using a new or different display technology, Ultra HDTVs are LED LCD models that cram more pixels onto the screen. This generates sharper, more-detailed images. Also known as 4K TVs, consumer Ultra HD sets have four times the resolution (3840 x 2160 pixels) of traditional HDTVs. However, don't expect to see a picture that's four times better. Given the dearth of Ultra HD content, the sets' mostly upscale current HD material to boost the image quality (a less than ideal solution) . 4K, under its official consumer label "Ultra HD," refers to one of two high definition resolutions - 3840 x 2160 pixels or 4096 x 2160 pixels. The term 4K is derived from its ~4,000 horizontal pixel resolution or four times the high definition resolution of 1080p. Current Full HD (1080p) implies a resolution of 1920 x 1080 resolution which equates to just over 2 million pixels. Ultra HD, at a resolution of 3840 x 2160, is over 8.3 million pixels. The pixel density of 4K resolution increases the potential draw distance of pictures, reproducing a more detailed depth than at 1080p. When used in a home context, 4K/UHD means the TV's screen has a minimum resolution of 3,840 pixels wide and 2,160 pixels high, making it the equivalent to two 1080p screens in height and two in length. This resolution was originally known as "Quad HD," and it's used by basically every 4K TV. Another resolution, known as 4Kx2K (4,096x2,160 pixels), is used by some projectors and many professional cameras. It also falls under the umbrella of 4K/UHD. Other shooting resolutions are also employed in the pro realm, depending on the camera.
Another innovation intended to attract shoppers' attention is curved screens — mostly used on OLED TVs and 4K LCDs. The idea, say manufacturers, is to make the TV-watching experience more engrossing or immersive. No special programming or content is needed for these sets, but many reviewers find that the curved screen warps the image slightly. Some early owners report that after living with a curved screen, they don't notice the difference or detect any distortion.
Curved models are substantially more expensive than comparable sets using the same display technology. A 4K, 55-inch Samsung curved LCD model, for example, costs about $3,300 in stores versus $2,300 for a comparable flat 4K LCD set from Samsung. LG is another supporter of the curved phenomena, but other companies, most notably Sony, have eschewed curved designs, and many market analysts expect curved sets to be a fad.
Rather than using a set-top box like Roku or a game console, smart TVs have an Internet connection and their own apps for online streaming services, such as Netflix. These programs are usually specific to the TV manufacturer (there is no standard operating system, like iOS or Android). So the range of online services offered varies widely. Some sets include apps for Facebook and Twitter; others don't. Smart TVs tend to have built-in Wi-Fi to connect to your home network, but check first. A few models still require an Ethernet connection.
is how dark and true to the color black your TV renders it on screen. Black level is very important for displaying detail, but if the picture is too dark detail can be lost in dark scenes. The black level of a good TV interprets the TV signal in a way that looks true black for excellent depth. Poor display quality of black levels can result in a picture that is a bit green or blue.
is the brightness of the white parts of the picture and the picture as a whole . This is the “white level” or sometimes referred to as the “picture”. Contrast settings that are too high make the picture too bright and too low won’t make them sharp and crisp. So the term Contrast Ratio determines how good your picture looks and how easy you can make out onscreen details in a room with the lights on. A Contrast Ratio of 3000:1 means the white levels are 3000 times brighter than the black levels and would be better than a Contrast Ration of 800:1. The larger the difference between the numbers the better. However, the way manufacturers measure such ratios varies widely, so it is not a reliable measure of the performance differences among sets.
is how vibrant the colors are on screen. An over-saturated picture looks unnatural and gaudy. Too little saturation usually results in a faded or washed out appearance.
originally, the standard refresh rate for high-definition displays. The refresh rate indicates the number of times a display is repainted per second, in hertz; a 60hz refresh rate indicates that a display is repainted 60 times per second.
quickly becoming the new standard. A higher refresh rate means a smoother picture and less motion blur.
a refresh rate sometimes seen specified for plasma displays. It doesn’t identify the refresh rate in the same way that 60hz or 120hz do. Plasma displays sample the incoming signal almost continuously and make any necessary adjustments immediately. A 600hz TV samples the incoming signal 600 times a second.
the number of pixels contained on a display. Resolution is traditionally expressed as the number of pixels on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis. However, in a flat-panel TV context, a 16:9 aspect ratio is often assumed and only the vertical element expressed. A bargain HD set may support only 720p, which means the set displays 720 lines scanned progressively (or in a single pass). Most HD TVs today, however, support the higher — and therefore better — 1080p HD format, which has 1080 lines of resolution (also called "Full HD")., which identifies 1080 lines of vertical pixels in a progressively scanned (rather than interlaced) display.
a resolution of 1920 x 1080 in a progressively scanned (rather than interlaced) display. A 1080p resolution enables display of high definition content without requiring down conversion.
The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, a spatial resolution of 1920 pixels × 1080 lines (2.1 megapixels), and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard.
is a progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9 (1.78:1). All major HDTV broadcasting standards (such as SMPTE 292M) include a 720p format which has a resolution of 1280x720; however, there are other formats, including HDV Playback and AVCHD for camcorders, which use 720p images with the standard HDTV resolution.
a digital television (DTV) format that provides a picture quality similar to digital versatile disk (DVD). It is a television system that uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high-definition television (1080i, 1080p, 1440p, 4K UHDTV,and 8K UHD) or enhanced-definition television (EDTV 480p). The two common SDTV signal types are 576i, with 576 interlaced lines of resolution, derived from the European-developed PAL and SECAM systems; and 480i based on the American National Television System Committee NTSC system.
HDTV (high definition television), is a television display technology that provides picture quality similar to 35 mm. movies with sound quality similar to that of today's compact disc. Some television stations have begun transmitting HDTV broadcasts to users on a limited number of channels. HDTV generally uses digital rather than analog signal transmission. However, in Japan, the first analog HDTV program was broadcast on June 3, 1989. The first image to appear was the Statue of Liberty and the New York Harbor. It required a 20 Mhz channel, which is why analog HDTV broadcasting is not feasible in most countries.
HDTV and standard definition television (SDTV) are the two categories of display formats for digital television (DTV) transmissions, which are becoming the standard. HDTV provides a higher quality display with a vertical resolution display from 720p to 1080i. The p stands for progressive scanning, which means that each scan includes every line for a complete picture, and the i stands for interlaced scanning which means that each scan includes alternate lines for half a picture. These rates translate into a frame rate of up to 60 frames per second, twice that of conventional television. One of HDTV's most prominent features is its wider aspect ratio (the width to height ratio of the screen) of 16:9, a development based on research showing that the viewer's experience is enhanced by screens that are wider. HDTV pixel numbers range from one to two million, compared to SDTV's range of 300,000 to one million. New television sets will be either HDTV-capable or SDTV-capable, with receivers that can convert the signal to their native display format.
In terms of audio quality, HDTV receives, reproduces, and outputs Dolby Digital 5.1.
In the United States, the FCC has assigned broadcast channels for DTV transmissions. In SDTV formats, DTV makes it possible to use the designated channels for multiple signals at current quality levels instead of single signals at HDTV levels, which would allow more programming with the same bandwidth usage. Commercial and public broadcast stations are currently deciding exactly how they will implement their use of HDTV.
HDTV uses the MPEG-2 file format and compression standard.
Before the advent of HD, it was important to sit far enough back from a television that you didn't perceive the individual lines or dots that made up a picture (not because you'd go blind). With today's HDTV sets, however, the bigger issue is the size of your room. Consider how many people in your family typically watch at once and where you're going to put your new set. Then pick the largest screen size that will fit into that space. The sweet spot today, considering price, performance and the typical living room, is a 55-inch TV.
|Diagonal Size of LED TV||Minimum Viewing Distance||Maximum Viewing Distance|
|19 inches||2.5 feet||5.3 feet|
|26 inches||3.3 feet||6.5 feet|
|32 inches||3.8 feet||7.6 feet|
|37 inches||4.3 feet||8.5 feet|
|42 inches||5.3 feet||10.5 feet|
|47 inches||5.9 feet||11.8 feet|
|50 inches||6.3 feet||12.5 feet|
|55 inches||6.9 feet||12.8 feet|
|60 inches||7.5 feet||15 feet|
|65 inches and larger||8.1 feet||16.2 feet|
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